Articles

  • Blood type and Rh Factor

    During pregnancy, a blood test is performed to determine your blood type and to determine if you have the Rh factor. The Rh factor is a protein present on some people's red blood cells. If you do not have the protein but your fetus does, your body may make antibodies against the Rh factor protein. To

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  • Breech

    At term, most babies will present with the head positioned to come through the vagina first. However, about 3 - 4 % of babies at term will present with the buttocks or legs first and this is called breech presentation. Vaginal breech delivery is associated with higher complication rates for the baby,

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  • Cervical Insufficiency

    Cervical insufficiency (also referred to as cervical incompetence), is the premature dilation of the cervix without pain or contractions, before the baby has reached full term. This may be associated with a short cervix as measured by ultrasound, or a past history of a spontaneous pregnancy loss during

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  • Chorioamnionitis

    Chorioamnionitis is infection or inflammation of the chorion and amnion layers of the fetal membranes. It is often diagnosed during labor based on the presence of maternal fever, maternal and/or fetal tachycardia, elevated maternal white blood cell count, uterine tenderness, or purulent cervical discharge. Disclaimer:

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  • Eclampsia

    Hypertension, or high blood pressure, affects 5 to 10% of all pregnancies. There is a spectrum of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy that includes the following situations: chronic hypertension (which is high blood pressure diagnosed in a person before pregnancy), gestational hypertension (which is

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  • Fetal Growth Restriction

    Fetal growth restriction is a condition in which an unborn baby (fetus) is smaller than would be expected for its gestational age. It is defined as an estimated fetal weight of less than the 10th percentile for gestational age based on ultrasound. The majority of fetuses below the 10th percentile are

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  • Fetal Kick Counts

    Assessment of fetal kick counts or fetal movements is one of many methods in evaluating fetal well-being. It can be used for reassurance when a patient perceives that there is a decrease in the usual fetal movement. Disclaimer: The information on this website is provided for educational and information

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  • Fetal Macrosomia

    Fetal macrosomia is a term used to describe a newborn whose birth weight exceeds either 4,000 or 4,500 grams. Large for gestational age (LGA) is another term used to describe excessive fetal growth resulting in a birth weight equal or more than the 90th percentile for the gestational age. The risk for

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  • Gestational Diabetes

    Gestational diabetes is a condition that develops during pregnancy and causes a patient's blood glucose levels to be too high. During pregnancy, there may be insufficient insulin production or resistance to insulin (the hormone that usually helps us to use glucose for energy); when this happens, the

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  • Group B Streptococcus (GBS)

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a bacteria that normally lives in the digestive tract. However, 25% of women also carry or are colonized with the bacteria in the vagina. Because this colonization does not mean infection for the woman, there may be no symptoms and screening for the bacteria is important

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  • HELLP - Hemolysis

    HELLP, which stands for hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet, is a condition that occurs in approximately 10 - 20 % of women who have preeclampsia with severe features. Patients may present with nausea and vomiting, epigastric or right upper quadrant pain, severe headache, visual changes,

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  • High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    Normal blood pressure in pregnancy is less than 120/80 mmHg. Anything above those numbers is considered elevated or hypertension. A severe form of elevated blood pressure can occur where it is accompanied by other changes such as protein in the urine, or symptoms such as headache, changes in vision,

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  • Hyperemesis Gravidarum

    Hyperemesis gravidarum is a severe form of nausea and vomiting that occurs in pregnancy. It is often diagnosed in the first trimester and can continue throughout the remainder of the pregnancy in some individuals. Patients with hyperemesis are unable to keep down fluids and may require IV hydration or

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  • Low-lying Placenta

    A low-lying placenta is one with the placental edge ending within 2 cm of the internal cervical os. The diagnosis is often made at the 20 week fetal anatomy ultrasound. Fortunately, the vast majority of low-lying placenta diagnoses resolve as the pregnancy progresses. Disclaimer: The information on

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  • Oligohydramnios

    Oligohydramnios is amniotic fluid volume less than would be expected for the gestational age. This condition is characterized by too little amniotic fluid surrounding your baby. The two most common reasons for low fluid are problems with the baby's growth and your water breaking before you go into labor

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